It is vitally essential for nearly all living species to drink purified water. Occasionally, disasters threaten significant water sources, contaminating them. Therefore, it is very much important to educate people on how to treat contaminated water before drinking.
Water should be treated before drinking
Before drinking water, you have to confirm that the water has been purified or treated before drinking. Often, contaminated water needs to be purified using different processes these days. Keep in mind that every method used for the purification of water has its own merits and demerits.
Removal of chlorine or sedimentation
You can use filtering for essential water removals such as chlorine removal or sedimentation. But overall, reverse osmosis is the best option to purify water. Manufacturers usually focus on reverse osmosis units because they do not consume more energy and purify water. Along with reverse osmosis, other methods are also practical and give you safe water for drinking.
Ultimate need for water purification
Most countries suffer from different water-borne diseases. So there is an ultimate need for water purification in every household. Although higher authorities struggle to provide clean and safe drinking water, we must take the initiative to make sure our homes and workplaces have water purification systems.
In this post, you will come to know about different ways to purify water at home. Now you have to evaluate which method is suitable for you to filter the water according to your needs. A person can use these methods for emergencies, outdoor survival, or in everyday life. These water purification processes are the most effective for getting pure and clean water safe for drinking.
We all know that boiling is the most simple way to clean drinking water. First of all, put the water over a stove until it starts to boil. It is most convenient to boil the water for at least 5 to 10 minutes to ensure 100% clean water. Boiling water for longer will result in more pure water.
When we boil contaminated water, it will remove all the oxygen from it; therefore, the resulting water ends up tasting flat. Boiling causes this issue, but you can quickly remedy it by simply shaking the purified water. On the other side, you can also improve the taste of the water by adding a pinch of salt to each quart of drinking water.
2. Slow sand filtration
Water can be purified using slow sand filtration, which people use all around the world for centuries. This filtration is a beneficial process that uses different layers of sand to remove suspended solids in water.
Slow sand filters are different from all other filters to clarify water. Due to the complex nature of this process, other than sand, there are also complex gel-like films. Sand naturally forms this gel-like film.
So we can say that there are many advantages of using slow sand filtration:
- It is a straightforward process with a simple design and can be used by yourself.
- It is a very simple procedure with little to no mechanical power. In this process, you do not require any type of chemicals or replaceable parts.
- Most surprisingly, slow sand filtration is very easy to operate and does not require any kind of maintenance.
Keep in mind that there are some disadvantages of using slow sand filtration. Firstly, it has a low filtration rate, and secondly, you have to get a proportional land area for the optimal treatment of drinking water.
Distillation is also a very famous method for purifying water that utilizes heat to collect pure water vapours. It is a very effective process from a scientific perspective because water has a lower boiling point than other contaminants and disease-causing organisms found in water.
Clean and pure water for drinking
First of all, water attains its boiling point after subjecting it to a heat source. Boiling the water until it vaporizes, the vapors then go into a condenser for cooling. So after cooling, the vapour is reversed into liquid water, clean and safe for drinking.
As I also discussed earlier, the contaminants have a higher boiling point and are left as sediments in the container.
Effective in removing bacteria and germs
Distillation is considered the best method for removing bacteria, salts, germs, and other heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Those people who have raw water or untreated water must use the distillation method.
A little bit slow process
The main drawback of the distillation method is that it is a little bit slow process of water purification. Also, the heat source is necessary for the purification to work. So it is considered to be a costly process of purifying water. But here we are talking about water purification methods used in homes. Therefore it is ideal and effective when we are going to purify small quantities of water.
Filtration is also one of the valuable ways of cleaning water. Ensure that you are using suitable multimedia filters to get rid of different harmful compounds and elements.
Now, you can efficiently purify water and make it safe to drink with the help of filtration. The filtration process may be chemical or physical, depending on the need. The good thing about filtration is that it can eliminate both the small size and large size compounds. These compounds can also eliminate dangerous contaminants such as viruses and bacteria that cause diseases.
Retaining the mineral content
Keep in mind that filtration is a quick and straightforward method that does not deplete all the mineral salts. So we can say that the mineral content is maintained when we are purifying water through filtration.
Therefore, most surprisingly, the water we get through filtration is considered to be the healthier one as compared to other processes. The adsorption process in this procedure effectively removes the unwanted compounds from water.
Filtration is considered the most efficient method in selective elimination of much smaller molecular compounds such as pesticides and chlorine compared to reverse osmosis.
Filtration is also an economical method to purify water because very little water is lost while purification. In addition, the filtration process is less costly because it doesn’t require a lot of energy that is usually needed in reverse osmosis and distillation.
a. Commercial filters
For safe drinking, there are different ways to filter the water. In case of emergency, we can also use porous materials such as cotton cloth or coffee filters. But unfortunately, they are not very good at removing all the unwanted particles. For this purpose, commercial filters are manufactured, which are very good and highly successful in getting rid of all the contaminants. We can easily remove soil and or all tannins from the contaminated drinking water through commercial filters.
Different types of commercial filters
You can find different types of commercial filters available on the market.
b. Portable filters
Portable filters are straightforward to use in case of emergency.
Home faucet filters
These filters are attached to your home faucets.
Water pitcher filters
These filters are available as pre-installed filters on bottles or water pitchers.
Keep in mind that water filters differ regarding shape, size, and cost. They usually work by pushing the water through a ceramic or charcoal filter. After going through ceramic or charcoal filters, they are chemically treated.
Clogging of filters
Unfortunately, the clogging of filters is the most common drawback when we are filtering water through commercial filters. However, you can reuse some filters by cleaning them. Otherwise, you have to buy a replacement filter.
Bleaching is sometimes used in case of emergencies. However, from my point of view, it is not a safe method because we use chemicals in it. In addition, working with bleach can be dangerous, so we have to follow careful instructions to ensure successful and safe water treatment.
The proper amount of chlorine
Keep in mind that while bleaching, you are using unscented and soap-free chlorinated bleach. Therefore, it is necessary to add chlorine with a sterile or new medicine dropper. It will ensure that we are using the proper amount of chlorine for bleaching. Usually, the following amounts of liquid bleach are used in the contaminated water.
- Add 40 drops of bleach in a single gallon of water if you are using 1% chlorine.
- Add 8 drops of bleach to each gallon of water if you are using 4 to 6% chlorine.
- Add 4 drops of bleach to each gallon of water if you are using 7 to 10% chlorine.
Chlorinated water should be left for half an hour before drinking. Be aware that filtered water has some chlorine odor, so if you do not experience it, repeat the process.
6. Using liquid iodine and Iodine tablets
Like chlorine, iodine tablets or liquid iodine are used in small amounts to kill the toxins in the water. However, we know very well that iodine is also chemical, just like chlorine, and it is intended only for short term use.
Liquid iodine is added to the contaminated water with the help of a medicine dropper. For example, if you are using 2% liquid iodine, you can add 5 drops of iodine to each quart of water if the water is clear. However, when you see that the water is turbid or cloudy, you can put 10 drops of water instead of 5 drops.
Just like liquid iodine, iodine tablets are also available to purify contaminated water. When you are using iodine tablets, then you must put two tablets per quart of water. Mix it well and let the solution set for a minimum of 30 minutes to an hour at room temperature. Then, whenever you want to drink that water, shake it thoroughly.
Using of additives
Keep in mind that iodine has a slightly bitter taste, and to avoid this problem, people use different kinds of additives. Additives include lemonade powder, lemon juice, and Vitamin C tablets, which are stirred into purified water.
7. Water filter pitcher
Water filter pitchers are typically used to filter the water for cooking and drinking. There are various types of filters attached to these pitchers. The water filter which is attached inside the pitcher is a filter with activated carbon. The excellent quality of activated carbon is that it absorbs harmful contaminants from the water. At the bottom of the filter, the contaminants are settled, which can be thrown away afterwards. From my perspective, water filter pitchers are ideal for use in different outdoor activities such as camping trips and picnics.
Non-chemical stabilized oxygen
It is somewhat a new process, and people are not familiar with it. However, it is also considered to be the easiest and quickest way to purify water. All you have to do is just add the drops of stabilized oxygen to the water. Keep in mind that stabilized oxygen serves as the natural antibiotic and is readily available in the market. You can find stabilized oxygen with labels and instructions for use.
Clean drinking water
The good news about using stabilized oxygen is that you are getting clean drinking water. The cleaned water can be consumed immediately after cleaning. Most surprisingly, you can use stabilized oxygen to purify the water instantly in case of outdoor emergencies or natural disasters.
8. Ultraviolet Light
Ultraviolet light not only kills harmful bacteria in the water but also in the air and even solid surfaces. So we can say that ultraviolet light is considered a useful tool for the purification of water. In different processes to filter water, the ultraviolet light method is regarded as one of the healthiest ways to drink water at home.
Along with this, you can also purchase portable UV water filters from stores or online. We can also take help from other types of ultraviolet light such as black lights and tanning bed bulbs in emergencies.
a. SODIS Method or Solar disinfection
Just like boiling, solar disinfection is also a cheap and convenient procedure. Usually, people use the SODIS process when boiling water for purification is not possible. In this process, we use heat from the Sun for the purification of water.
Use of plastic bottles
If you want this process to be successful, then you need transparent plastic bottles for it. So pour the contaminated water in these plastic bottles and put them into direct sunlight. Make sure that the water is three quarters filled in each plastic bottle.
After putting the contaminated water into the plastic bottles, shake the bottled water for about 20 to 30 seconds. After that, close them tightly and put them in the direct sun rays. Ensure that you are putting these plastic bottles in direct sunlight for a minimum of 6 to 8 hours before drinking.
Perfect for developing countries
This method is considered the best option and perfect for developing countries because it requires only lightweight, transparent plastic bottles and sunlight. Make sure that these transparent plastic bottles are manufactured from PET (polyethene terephthalate)
How does the SODIS Method kill germs?
In the sunlight, UV radiations are present. When they come across these plastic bottles and enter the water, they kill many infectious germs such as bacteria, viruses and parasites.
These parasites may be Cryptosporidia or Giardia. Keep in mind that you do not require high temperature and air to kill the germs. This method proved to be very effective even at lower water temperatures.
This method is straightforward to use and comes up with almost no cost. This makes it a reliable and effective way for removing germs.
However, the two drawbacks of solar disinfection are the low volume treatment and treatment time. The time required to treat two bottles is not a drawback because you can put in the other after you have treated one. You can also set the number of bottles at one time to be treated.
b. Solvatten method
Solvatten method is the advancement of the SODIS method. Therefore, we can say that this process is a new adaptation of the SODIS method. The method involves filling a container with water. Generally, the container is left in the Sun for 2 to 6 hours after being filled with water.
Depending on the weather, the time of exposure may vary. The good thing about this method is that you will get an indication about the process completion. There is a red spot on the device, and it turns green when the process is completed.
If you would like to drink the water, you need to cool it, and if you’d like to use it for cooking, you can use it as is.
The main advantage of using the solvatten method is that it is a combination of UV disinfection and filtration. Many scientists prove this method to be very effective and reliable in killing germs. In addition, you can easily use the solvatten process when you are out from your home as it is simple to use and very handy.
There is one significant disadvantage to this process: containers must be obtained from Sweden and shipped from there. It is a little bit costly, especially for low-income families. In addition, insufficient consumption of water can lead to recontamination.
9. Countertop water filter
It is another type of water filter that connects to a faucet and does not require additional components.
There is a mini faucet on it which filters water automatically once turned on. Countertop water filters require space, so they are best suited to large countertops.
10. Faucet water filter
As the name depicts, we install this water filter on the faucet. It is very effective and useful to capture all the impurities present in the water and leave out the clean and fresh water coming out of the faucet. The most beautiful thing about faucet water filters is that they are straightforward to install and less costly.
11. Under sink water filter
You can also get purified water with the help of an under sink water filter. Still, unfortunately, it is an expensive filter and more challenging to install than other types of filters. As the name depicts, an under sink water filter is installed under the sink. At the same time, you can quickly get rid of several contaminants with the help of this filter system.
12. Whole house water filter system
In the main water pipe of the house is an integrated whole-house water filter system. So when the water comes through the faucets in the home, it becomes filtered through the main pipe. As you can see, you have to install the whole house water filter system in the main pipe. It is a costly filtration system, but this process has great worth because it helps save money on clean water.
13. Clay Vessel filtration or ceramic filtration
It is a rather old method of filtration and still in practice in many rural areas. Clay vessel filtration is also called ceramic filtration and is a versatile water filtration method. In this method, we use natural media to eliminate sediments and bacteria from the drinking water.
Like different filtration systems, ceramic filters are good because they are portable, where you can take them on your camping trips to stay hydrated by drinking clean water. Although clay vessel filtration is an old method, still they are popular because of its longevity and powerful filtration properties.
What is ceramic water filtration?
There are tiny pores on the vessel’s ceramic surface, which can filter bacteria and sediments from the drinking water. You can easily install this type of filtration method in your house very quickly.
How does a ceramic filter work?
As I also discussed earlier, there are millions of tiny pores on the casing of the ceramic cartridge to which water flows through.
The size of these pores is just a half micron in size and trap all the impurities when water passes through them. In addition, the inside of the filter has sharp angles so that it could further catch any particle that has penetrated the exterior surface.
So we can say that clay vessel filtration is just like the natural water purification process. In natural processes, the water from aquifers seeps through the layers of the rocks on the earth’s surface. After that, the pure water goes into the streams, so we can say that ceramic filters work the same.
Benefits of ceramic filtration
• Simple to use and acceptability
• Protection of diarrhoeal diseases
• One time cost
• Reduction of Protozoa and bacteria in water
• It comes with great longevity
• It is not an effective method in terms of removing viruses from the water.
• The quality of the filters may vary.
• Unfortunately, it can lead to recontamination with No chlorine residual protection.
• Low flow rate as it comes up with 1 to 3 litres filtration in one hour.
• There is a need for spare parts as filters can break over time.
• You must regularly clean filters and receptacles, especially when the water is turbid.
14. Activated charcoal water filter
Whenever you question which type of filter is widely used, the answer is an activated charcoal water filter. It is the most popular water filter used worldwide and is very effective in removing viruses and bacteria from the water.
We can use activated charcoal water filters both for drinking water and other purposes. Its great property is very porous, which makes it stand out among different filters available on the market.
This is the main reason it can trap even the tiniest impurity present in the water. It also has the ability to hold them effectively by giving you clean and pure water. Although activated water filters are also used commercially, now you can also use them in your home to clean the impurities from the water.
How activated charcoal filter works
First of all, by using a solution of 8 drops of bleach per gallon of water, clean and sterilize the glass pitcher.
At the base, put the filter by keeping in mind that the filter covers the nozzle.
Now put the activated charcoal in water for sometime to check that the carbon is mixed or not.
Now take the saturated carbon and fill the ¾ of the pitcher. Keep in mind that you are keeping up some space at the top as a reservoir for water.
Now fill the pitcher with water and keep in mind that you are filling half of the water at a time. When you put water in it, it pours out of the crowd at the bottom. First of all, it will go through the carbon, then filter, and then come out.
15. Reverse osmosis
From my perspective, reverse osmosis is the best of all water purification processes because it provides you with great-tasting and fresh drinking water. You can use the Reverse Osmosis process both in your home or industry. It is also the most popular and cost-effective water filtration method available in the market.
How reverse osmosis method works
Reverse osmosis usually works with the help of a semipermeable membrane. First of all, water passes through the semipermeable membrane and leaves all the contaminants behind. So we can say that all the unwanted particles from the water are drained out. So, in the end, you will get clean drinking water in a holding tank.
Mechanical filters and activated carbon filters
Keep in mind that activated carbon filters and mechanical filters are primarily used with an RO unit. First of all, mechanical filters remove all the sediments, dirt, and impurities that clog the semipermeable membrane.
After that, an RO unit is installed, and then the activated carbon filter removes many organic compounds. These organic compounds then move through the RO unit. Unfortunately, nitrates will pass through the carbon filters.
A large amount of water is treated.
The Reverse Osmosis process is good because RO units are present that use large amounts of water. 75% or more water is put into the RO units, discarded with the contaminants. Keep in mind that if you are planning to use the Reverse Osmosis process in your home, then there should not be an unlimited water supply.
However, it is an expensive process but still an effective one in removing contaminants. They also require regular maintenance, but they are very effective in giving you clean water fit for drinking. Usually, people connect the Reverse Osmosis unit to the drinking line and cooking line. They normally install RO units under the kitchen sink. Make sure that you are regularly testing the water supply and check whether the membrane is intact or not.
Remove many of the impurities.
Through reverse osmosis, water passes through and removes all the impurities. It is very easy to remove almost 90% of different impurities such as biological contaminants and minerals.
If the semipermeable membrane is of high quality and the pressure of the water is good, then the reverse osmosis pressure is more effective. These two things help determine how effectively the water separates the contaminants.
Contaminants removed through reverse osmosis.
Reverse Osmosis processes effectively remove substantial amounts of contaminants and organic chemicals such as metals, minerals, and salts. In addition, they can eliminate many microorganisms and organic chemicals. They are not as effective at removing certain organic compounds like nitrates.
Advantages of Reverse Osmosis
Improves the taste
The reverse osmosis filtration process is very good from my perspective because it maintains the taste of the water. Also along with the taste, odour, and appearance of the water is improved by removing the contaminants that cause taste and odour problems.
Although the installation of the reverse osmosis unit is a little bit costly, in the long run, it will save a lot of money. When you start using water through reverse osmosis, you can cancel the water delivery services. Also, you will get rid of purchase bottled water. Reverse osmosis filtration is better than the boiled water in terms of taste and quality. Now you will get quality water for just pennies per gallon.
As we all know, there are very few moving or replaceable parts of the RO system, so it is easy to clean and maintain.
RO systems are popular in removing the majority of the impurities and pollutants from the water, such as nitrates, sulphates, lead, pesticides, fluoride, pharmaceuticals, arsenic, bacteria, and much more.
The carbon filter of the reverse osmosis system will also remove the chloramines and chlorine from the water.
Which method is good for water purification?
All the water purifying methods give you the surety that the water we are drinking is safe to ingest. However, keep in mind that whatever the method will be in your home, always remember to drink enough water to stay hydrated. We all know very well that the more concerned people about health rely on the cleanliness of what we are putting in our bodies.
Filtration methods on a small scale
Through different kinds of investigations, many filtration methods for home are done on a small scale. Through water purification methods undergoing in our homes, we can improve the pH of the water. We can also reduce the hardness, chlorine levels, and alkalinity levels from the water. Therefore, the water quality is increased and safe to drink through these small water purification processes.
The most effective method activated charcoal.
I am not saying that other processes are not good for water purification, but activated charcoal proved to be the most effective one for many scientists. This process is very good in removing gases and airborne toxins from water and the environment.
Along with purifying water, activated charcoal is also good for the environment overall. The reason is that carbon is a natural resource and cheap. Activated charcoal is considered to be a nature-friendly option for purifying water. Additionally, it can be activated with boiling water to lessen the carbon emissions formed. Then carbon comes to the activated state in which it can
We all know very well that pure drinking water is necessary for every human being, and three days without drinking can cause dehydration. If we drink polluted water then, unfortunately, it will cause several problems and diseases. So there is an urge to let water grow through any kind of water purification system.
In this post, you have come to know about very easy and effective ways of water purification. All methods have their strengths and weaknesses. With your wisdom and judgement, you can choose that method that is favourable for you and your home.
If you cannot afford the costly method, you can go for the cheap methods discussed in the post. And if you can afford then go for the revolutionary and advanced methods such as the Reverse Osmosis purification process. The best method, according to many scientists, is to employ multiple methods, ensuring that you and your family drink the cleanest water possible.